Q&A Feedback and comment box

Youtube Channel - https://www.youtube.com/user/aGATHERING144

Radio Station -----> http://www.blogtalkradio.com/

OFFICIAL GOCC WEBSITE!!!! --->>>http://www.gatheringofchrist.org/

Monday, 29 April 2013

The Arab Muslim Slave Trade Of Africans, The Untold Story


Saturday, 27 April 2013

The Zionists Jews were able to pull off their racial hoax for decades

How the Racial Hoax of the Jews Was Finally Exposed

The newest DNA scientific studies, showing that the people known as the Jews of Israel—and, indeed Jews all over the world—are, in fact, of Khazar, not Israelite origins, is backed by the earlier work of historians.
These historians found that their scholarly books and reports were immediately attacked by Zionists desperate to maintain the fiction that the Jews could trace their heritage all the way back to Abraham.
The Zionists knew the truth—that they are not a race but a composite of many races. They had to keep up the myth that they were a homogenous race kept together by religion and community interests for 5,000 years. Only in this way could the Zionist Jews claim to be the seed of Abraham. Only as “Israelites” could the Jews claim possession to land where they and their ancestors had never been.
The Zionists knew, too, that their genocide and ethnic cleansing against the Palestinians was not justified unless they, the Jews, had claim to the land. How else could they get the millions of evangelical Christians to support their horrible behavior?
If they were suspected of being converts to Judaism and not actually the tribes mentioned in the Bible, it was all over for them. Their Lie would be out—they would be seen for what they are—imposters.

Pulling Off the Hoax

The Zionists Jews were able to pull off their racial hoax for decades, even though historians and anthropologists—many of them Jewish—wrote book after book. In 1899, famous British historian Houston Stewart Chamberlain published The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, which held that the Jews were not a race, but instead, were “bastards.” (At the time, bastards was not a pejorative word)

Yitzhak Schipper, quoted extensively by Jacob Litman’s The Economic Role of Jews in Medieval Poland, affirmed that the Khazars were the “Jews.”

In 1867, the great Jewish scholar Abraham Harkavy, in The Jews and Languages of the Slavs, spoke of the Jewish Yiddish language coming from the Khazars.
It was, however, a prominent Jew named Arthur Koestler, himself a Zionist Jew, who in 1976 published the book which caused such a sensation. The Thirteenth Tribe was a literary bombshell. Koestler’s accurate work was meant to be a refutation of Hitler and the Nazis, but it had incredible unintended consequences. He wrote:

“The large majority of surviving Jews in the world is of Eastern European—thus perhaps mainly of Khazar—origin. If so, this would mean that their (the Jews) ancestors came not from Canaan but from the Caucasus, once believed to be the cradle of the Aryan race, and that genetically they are more closely related to the Hun, Ulgur, and Magyar tribes than to the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob...The story of the Khazar Empire, as it slowly emerges from the past, begins to look like the most cruel hoax which history has ever perpetrated.”

Koestler, who thought he was doing his fellow Jews a service, was unmercifully attacked by other Zionists who felt he had let the cat out of the bag. If they come from the Khazars and are not of Israelite origin, the Jews had no ancestral claim to the land of Israel. They were not the seed of Abraham but of King Bulan and the people of Khazaria.

In his important 2007 book,The Invention of the Jewish People, Dr. Shlomo Sand says that the Jews are not a race and have no Israelite connection. (Click Here to Order Your Copy)
As Shlomo Sand, history professor at the University of Tel Aviv, explains it in his outstanding, 2007 book, Invention of the Jewish People, “Without the Old Testament in its hand and the exile of the Jewish people in its memory, Israel would have no justification for annexing Arab Jerusalem and establishing settlements in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and even the Sinai Peninsula.”

If they were Khazars, the title, the “Eternal People” did not apply to them. They would be, in fact, another usurping ethnic conglomerate, falsely claiming to be “Jews” and willing to kill to illegally possess the rightful ancestral lands of the Palestinians.
Other books followed, most notably Kevin Brooks’ 1999, The Jews of Khazaria. But these many scholarly books never really became the consensus because of Zionist opposition. As Orwell once wrote, “Whoever controls history controls the world.”

DNA Science Introduces Stark Reality

Until 1968, that is, when the two British scientists, Watson and Crick, came up with DNA science. Since 1968, DNA has become the principal science used in criminology, both to convict and to exonerate. It has become so popular that “DNA Kits” can be purchased for a couple hundred dollars so individuals can have their own blood tested to determine their heritage, down to the last percentile.
Because of DNA science, historians and anthropologists have been able to find missing links and to unravel the mysteries of race and ethnology.

In 2001, Dr. Ariella Oppenheim, of Hebrew University, a biologist, published the first extensive study of DNA and the origin of the Jews. Her research found that virtually all the Jews came from Khazar blood. Not only that but Oppenheim discovered that the Palestinians—the very people whom the Jews had been persecuting and ejecting from Israel’s land since 1948—had more Israelite blood than did the Jews. In sum, the vast majority of the Jews were not Jews; some of the Palestinians were. Some of the Palestinians even had a DNA chromosome which established that they were “Cohens”—workers at the ancient Temple and synagogues of the Jews.

The Definitive DNA Study

Now comes the ultimate, definitive DNA study, by Dr. Eran Elhaik and associates at the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Entitled, The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses, and published by the Oxford Journal on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, the study confirms Oppenheim’s research and the many scholarly books.

Dr. Elhaik and the prestigious Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine conclude in their report:“The Khazarian Hypothesis suggests that Eastern European Jews descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and Converted to Judaism in the eighth century...Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars.”

Who Can Argue With DNA Science?

So DNA science has proven that the findings of many historians and anthropologists is correct. The “Jews” of Israel are not Abraham’s descendants but, instead, come from the subjects of King Bulan of Khazaria.

The “Jews” Are Not Jews But Are Khazarians

Jews Are Not Descendants of Abraham

“I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the Synagogue of Satan.”
(Revelation 2:9)
“And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land...”
(Genesis 12:7)
Who should possess the land of Israel? Christian evangelicals say it should be the descendants of Abraham. They point to the Old Testament and claim that God gave this land forever to the descendants of Abraham and that God demands they and they alone own the land.
To the Christian evangelical, this means the Jews. Yes, it is the Jews who own this land, and it is their land forever.
Itil, capital of Khazaria
In 2008, Russian archaeologist Dmitry Vasilyev unearthed Itil, the long lost capital of the Kingdom of Khazaria. New DNA science proves that today’s “Jews” come from Khazaria and are not the seed of Abraham.
The Jews, then, according to Christian evangelicals, are the descendants of Abraham, his seed.

DNA Science Confounds the Common Wisdom

There is only one problem. And it is a huge one. Science proves those who call themselves “Jews” are not Jews!DNA Science has confounded the Christian evangelicals by proving conclusively that most of the people in the nation of Israel and in World Jewry are not the descendants of Abraham.
Those living today who profess to be “Jews” are not of the ancient Israelites, and they are not the seed of Abraham. In fact, the new DNA research shows that the Palestinians actually have more Israelite blood than do the “Jews!”
The nation of Israel today is populated with seven and half million imposters.

The “Jews” Are Not Jews But Are Khazarians

Dr. Eran Elhaik, geneticist researcher at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, found that today’s “Jews” originated from Khazaria and not Israel. They are not the seed of Abraham.
The newest DNA science finding is from Dr. Eran Elhaik (“a Jew”) and associates at the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In research accepted December 5, 2012 and published by the Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Molecular Biology and Evolution, it was found that the “Khazarian Hypothesis” is scientifically correct.

What exactly is the “Khazarian Hypothesis?” Simply stated, it holds that the Jewry genome is a mosaic of ancestries which rise primarily out of the Khazars.
Jews are Khazars, not Israelites.

The “Jews” of America, Europe, and Israel are descendants not of Father Abraham but of King Bulan and the people of ancient Khazaria. Khazaria was an amalgam of Turkic clans who once lived in the Caucasus (Southern Russia) in the early centuries CE. These Turkic peoples were pagans who convertedto Judaism in the eighth century. As converts, they called themselves “Jews,” but none of their blood comes from Israel.

Geneticists report that less than 2% of “Jews” living in Israel are actually Israelites.

Later, the “Jews” (Khazars) emigrated, settling in Russia, Hungary, Poland, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe. As “Jews,” the Khazars then left the European nations in 1948 and settled the fledgling, new nation of Israel.
The people of Israel are not the seed, nor the ancestors, of Abraham. They call themselves “Jews,” but in fact, DNA science shows them to be Khazars. They say they are “Jew,” but they are not.
“There are no blood or family connections among the Jews,” said Dr. Elhaik in an interview with Haaretz, Israel’s daily newspaper. “The various groups of Jews in the world today do not share a common genetic origin. Their genome is largely Khazar.”

The Khazarians, never in Israel, converted to Talmudic Judaism in the 8th Century.

God Did Not Give the Land to the Khazarians

Thus, when Prime Minister Netanyahu says, “God gave this land to our Israelite forefathers,” he is absolutely wrong. There are no Israelite forefathers of today’s “Jews.” When today’s “Jews” say they should possess the land because they are Israelites and are the seed of Abraham, they are mistaken.
The “Jews” are in Israel for one reason and one reason only: Because the United States, in 1948, recognized the nation of “Israel” and has since funded and protected it. God’s Word has nothing to do with it.
God’s Word, the Holy Bible, prophesied that in the last days imposters would erroneously and falsely claim to be “Jews.” These imposters would, the Bible told us, persecute their enemies and especially the Christians. But God would have his revenge:

“Behold, I will make them of the Synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; Behold I will make them to come and worship at thy feet and know that I have loved thee.” (Revelation 3:9)

Do the “Jews” (Khazars) not do exactly as our God prophesied? Do they not persecute the Palestinians and defile the land, claiming they are its original inhabitants? This, even though theirproven ancestors, the Khazars, never set foot in the Middle East and are not the seed of Abraham?

My thanks to Dr. Eran Elhaik of Johns Hopkins University and to his associates. You have performed a valuable service with your DNA research, both to Christianity and to world understanding. Elhaik’s research confirms earlier DNA studies, especially the work of Dr. Ariella Oppenheim of Hebrew University, who likewise found, in 2001, that the “Jews” came from the Khazars rather than the Israelites. Dr. Oppenheim even found that some of the Palestinians have the chromosomes proving they are “Cohen,” related to the ancient Israelites who worked in the Synagogue and Temple.

Sunday, 21 April 2013

The Real Tribe Of GAD Revealed!


Jacob and Esau (who is the White Man in the Bible)

U.S. Ambassador to Egypt Accused of Breaking Sharia Law!!!!

The U.S. Ambassador to Egypt, Anne Patterson, is being accused of some outlandish behavior and remarks. Last week, several Egyptian papers and websites, including Al Dostor, reported that Dia’ al-Din al-Garahi, a human rights lawyer and president of the Justice Center for Freedoms and Media, submitted a complaint to the Attorney General accusing Patterson “of libel and defamation of the Egyptian people and making statements that are likely to disturb society and threaten Egypt’s security.”

According to Report 935 of the Attorney General, “the American Ambassador, after drinking alcohol in contradiction to Islamic Sharia law, said that she rules Egypt and that the Egyptian people are under her authority, that she controls them like a puppet, and that the Egyptian people have no idea of what is transpiring around them.”

The report further adds, citing one Dr. Latif Shaker, a Palestinian writer living in America, that the U.S. ambassador had earlier said that “the Jews will return to Egypt in 2013 and that they are the masters of the earth”; that “Egypt will go bankrupt during this year and Egyptians will turn to the United States to save them from famine and poverty.” The report further accuses Patterson of saying that “the land of Egypt belongs to the Jews, for it was theirs originally,” and that “the Jews were kicked out of Egypt after building the pyramids and DNA analysis reveals that King Tut was a Jew.”

King Tut was a Jew because he ruled Egypt under the Hyksos period which is when the Israelites ruled Egypt for a time something they do not teach people in secular history!!

Egypt was only ever great because we ruled there it was not down to the original Egyptians themselves, it is because we ruled there for a time and made that landmass great throughout the time that we were there!

Gen 22:18  And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; 

Through Abraham's seed all nations are blessed so just like we ruled in Egypt and made it great so have we been under every kingdom since then and made it great too, that is coming from ANCIENT 
HOLY ROMAN even unto Modern day Babylon (America).

These landmasses were made great off the bloodshed of slaves, whether people consider it to be pro black or not these people single handedly built these empires.

Rom 11:12  Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles;

This is baring in mind that this is not talking about the Jew-ISH people in Israel now, which are imposters according to scripture and history.

They are not Jew by bloodline they are Jew by religion basically religious converts.

The real Jews were people of colour and were black in origin, those Jew-ish people in Israel now are not the people that came out of Egypt 1000s of years ago dwelling amongst the original Egyptians which were dark skinned Nubian's neither did they ever build those pyramids.

Joseph, Moses, and Paul
Were Mistaken For Being Egyptian

Joseph: "And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt... And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him" (Genesis 42:3-8).

Moses: "Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. And the shepherds came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day? And they said, AN EGYPTIAN DELIVERED US OUT OF THE HAND OF THE SHEPHERDS..." (Exodus 2:19).

Paul: "And as Paul was to be led into the castle, he said unto the chief captain, May I speak unto thee? Who said, Canst thou speak Greek? Art not thou (Paul) that EGYPTIAN, which before these days madest an uproar... But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew" (Acts 21:37-39).

If you have struggled to figure it out by now then let me make it simple for you the original Jews of the Bible are BLACK PEOPLE!!

Apparently the Palestinian Shaker’s claims were made earlier this year, for the following press release appears on the U.S. Embassy in Cairo website:

Statement on Falsehoods in the Media

Online and media reports claiming that the U.S. Ambassador to Egypt, Anne W. Patterson, made statements to the website of the Israeli newspaper Maariv asserting that Israel has the right to Egyptian land are completely false. The Ambassador has never conducted an interview with Maariv and never made any of the reported statements. We encourage journalists to call our press office (which is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) to check the facts about U.S. Government policies, activities and statements before publishing stories about the United States.

Regardless, the accusations—which certainly seem to fit the “war is deceit” paradigm—have now been formally filed with Egypt’s Attorney General and only time will tell what, if anything, will come of it in the new Egypt.

The Real Statue of Liberty!!!

There is a lot of history that didn't make it into the history books for our schools. Back in the day I would tell you what my Aunt Serena use to tell me. READ, get you a book and educate yourself more even more than what the teachers are teaching and she was and educator herself. I didn't understand it then but I know now...
A History Lesson
It is hard to believe that after my many years of schooling secondary and post) the following facts about the Statue of Liberty was never taught. Hundreds of thousands if not millions of people including myself have visited the Statue of Liberty over the years but yet I'm unable to find one person who knows the true history behind the Statue- amazing. Yes,amazing that so much important Black history (such as this) is hidden from us (Black and White). What makes this even worse is the fact that the current twist on history perpetuates and promotes white supremacy at the expense of Black Pride.

During my visit to France I saw the original Statue of Liberty. However there was a difference, the statue in France is Black. The Statue of Liberty was originally a Black woman, but, as memory serves, it was because the model was Black.

In a book called "The Journey of The Songhai People", according to Dr. Jim Haskins, a member of the National Education Advisory Committee of the Liberty-Ellis Island Committee,professor of English at the University of Florida, and prolific Black author, points out that what stimulated the original idea for that 151 foot statue in the harbor.

He says that what stimulated the idea for the creation of the statue initially was the part that Black soldiers played in the ending of Black African Bondage in the United States. It was created in the mind of the French historian Edourd de Laboulaye, chairman of the French Anti-Slavery Society, who, together with sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi,proposed to the French government that the people of France present to the people of the United States through the American Abolitionist Society, the gift of a Statue of Liberty in recognition of the fact that Black soldiers won the Civil War in the United States.

It was widely known then that it was Black soldiers who played the pivotal role in winning the war, and this gift would be a tribute to their prowess. Suzanne Nakasian, director of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island Foundations' National Ethnic Campaign said that the Black Americans' direct connection to Lady Liberty is unknown to the majority of Americans,BLACK or WHITE.

When the statue was presented to the U.S. Minister to France in 1884, it is said that he remonstrated that the dominant view of the broken hackles would be offensive to a U.S. South, because since the statue was a reminder of Blacks winning their freedom. It was a reminder to a beaten South of the ones who caused their defeat, their despised former captives.

Documents of Proof:

1.) You may go and see the original model of the Statue of Liberty, with the broken chains at her feet and in her left hand. Go to the Museum of the City of NY, Fifth Avenue and 103rd Street write to Peter Simmons and he can send you some documentation.

2.) Check with the N.Y. Times magazine, part II_May 18, 1986. Read the article by Laboulaye.

3.) The dark original face of the Statue of Liberty can be seen in the N.Y. Post, June 17, 1986, also the Post stated the reason for the broken chains at her feet.

4.) Finally, you may check with the French Mission or the French Embassy at the U.N. or in Washington, D.C. and ask for some original French material on the Statue of Liberty, including the Bartholdi original model.

Sunday, 14 April 2013

One Mile Away TV - Zimbo Freestyle (Waking up Jacob!!)

Isa 29:9  Stay yourselves, and wonder; cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink. 
Isa 29:10  For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered. 

A spirit of deep sleep has been poured out on us as a nation, it is high time now that we awoke out of that deep sleep!
Isa 29:11  And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed: 
Isa 29:12  And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned. 

We have been taught out of this book for years growing up listening to the false lies of pastors even some friends and family.
Isa 29:13  Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: 

Now we need to draw near The Most High reading his book as it is written to find out that we are the very people that the book speaks of this is our heritage, our ancestry and most importantly our history!

Sons of Jacob STAND UP!

Thursday, 11 April 2013

GOCC - Health Sector - Barack Rapah, Naturally! The natural way to vibrant health, REDISCOVERED!

A wonderful website put together by one of our sisters!
Click on the link and rediscover the fantastic way to look after your body the RIGHT WAY!

I started out in nursing in 1979 and followed the western medical model faithfully. However, I began to question why people were not getting healed. That's why I started nursing right? Since 1982 I have been on a quest to find out the causes of why people were not getting healed of their chronic illnesses. I learned as much as I could about herbs and alternative methods to bring about healing.

I completed a degree in Social Dimensions of Health so that I could get things in perspective to figure out what was going on. I'm a great believer in keeping things as simple as possible without missing the key elements. 

I then went on to complete a course on raw foods and was presented with a level 1 chef certificate. I have found it extremely beneficial to incorporate raw foods into my diet, along with fasting, cleansing, and detoxification. 

One common thread I found with most modalities is that they are not new but have been rediscovered. Herbal medidcine has a long history of usage over 1,000s of years. Western medicine which is mainly mechanistic, does not have the monopoly on health. Western medicine excels in the area of acute illness, primarly Accident & Emergencey but it has a poor track record of dealing with chronic illness. 

I aim to get to the root of the causes of ill health to bring about wholeness and balance to the body. 

As you're probably wondering, Barack Rapah means bless and heal in phoenician hebrew. 

Monday, 8 April 2013



Exodus 6:3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.

Genesis 22:14 And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.


After the fall of Biblical Israel, their texts remained behind, while they were exiled and taken captive. These texts remained fairly intact, and were not tampered with until a group came along. This group was called the Masoretes, and they existed for a few centuries as scribes. 
The Masoretes were not from the original Hebrew population, but rather imposters from Europe and Eurasia, all descendant from Gomer, the rest can be put into perspective. Their purpose was to hide the history of the real Hebrews, so that they may be the chosen people. And they were successful, as they were chosen. As the Most High God of Israel had chose a people, Satan did too, he chose Jews, specifically Ashkenazi. He chose them and gave them the world, so long as they do his desire and work for him. These imposters set themselves up to be the real Hebrews, and establish their god (Satan) as the God of the Bible. One of the many ways they did this was by going through ancient Hebrew texts and “revising” them, while changing the Name to the Tetragrammaton, which is Satanic. 


In Hebrew, Je, Jeh, Jah, Yah means Lord or God.

The suffix “HOVAH” is No. 1943 in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary and has the meaning of “ruin, mischief.”

It is another form of No. 1942, ‘HAVVAH’, which is translated “calamity, iniquity, mischief, mischievous (thing), naughtiness, naughty, noisome, perverse thing, substance, very wickedness.”

Put the two (Je + hovah) together and you get “God of ruin, mischief, calamity, perversion, wickedness and noisome. 
Simply put, Jehovah is The God of Evil!


Exo 6:3 And I appearedH7200 untoH413 Abraham,H85 untoH413 Isaac,H3327 and untoH413 Jacob,H3290 by the name of GodH410 Almighty,H7706 but by my nameH8034 JEHOVAHH3068 was I notH3808 knownH3045 to them. 





From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God: - Jehovah, the Lord. Compare H3050, H3069.

True Meaning of Jehovah





Contracted for H3068, and meaning the same; Jah, the sacred name: - Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Cp. names in “-iah,” “-jah.”





From H1933 (in the sense of eagerly coveting and rushing upon; by implication of falling); desire; also ruin: - calamity, iniquity, mischief, mischievous (thing), naughtiness, naughty, noisome, perverse thing, substance, very wickedness.





Another form for H1942; ruin: - mischief.

You have people that know the Ancient Phonecian Hebrew and they have got themselves a JPS Hebrew Tanakh and read the Yahweh/Jehovah in the scriptures and it says Yahawah but it is still the same as Jehovah or Yahweh which means sacred god of wickedness, clamity and ruin.

Yah/Jah just denotes God, Some people say some of the Prophets have Jah/Yah in their names also but there is prophets that lived that did not, Moses did not, Samuel did not! 

But Satan also have Yah/Jah in his name, when you reach a certain degree of Masonary they reveal to you Satan's name Jahbulon. So Yah/Jah just denotes God and can also refer to fallen God's also.

Hallelujah was also injected into the scriptures through the Tetragrammaton because Halal is SATAN!

So when you are saying that you are praising Lucifier.

From H1167 with pronominal suffix; my master; Baali, a symbolical name of Jehovah: - Baali.

The term Idumea derives from the Greek form of Edom (“red”).

The term Idumea derives from the Greek form of Edom (“red”). The change from Edomite to Idumean resulted from the conquests of Alexander the Great, which made Greek the common language of the area. The name was applied to the former country of the Edomites and to the portion of south Judah occupied by the descendants of Esau after the Jews had been deported to Babylon following the conquest by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C. The country known as Idumea in the historical period between the Old and New Testaments (the intertestamental period) had its northern boundary at Bet-sur (Beth-zur), a few miles north of Hebron, and included some of the Shephelah (low country) extending down into the former Philistine country (1 Maccabees 4:15, 22, 61).

First known as Edomites, then as Nabateans, and finally as Idumeans, the ancestors of the Idumeans trace their lineage to the elder brother of Jacob, Esau, who was cheated out of both his birthright and his blessing (Genesis 27:1-45). This led to conflict between the children of Israel and the descendants of Esau throughout the entire biblical period.
It is not surprising, therefore, that the Edomites rejoiced when the Babylonians conquered Israel. The Edomites then occupied the territory vacated by the Israelites following the exile of the kingdom by the Babylonians after 586 B.C.

About 300 BC Arabian tribes invaded and took the Edomite capital Petra, forcing the remaining Edomites into the area south of Judah, which then became included in what was known as Idumea. The invaders, known as Nabateans, made Sela or Petra the center of their caravan trade both from east to west and north to south. These desert tradesmen, influenced now by Greek ideas, fashioned the bowl-like “crater” at Petra into a fantastic city with a concentration of rock-hewn temples, tombs, and buildings made from the colorful red sandstone of the area. In addition to creating the world’s most unique city, the Nabateans were excellent traders and farmers. As Josephus says, they were not warlike but skilled in commerce, art, and agriculture. The Nabateans created the strategic desert stronghold of Avedat, which, with Petra, commanded the caravan routes. The Nabateans flourished from about 100 BC to AD 100, when the Romans gradually caused their demise by changing the caravan routes from south of the Dead Sea to the area around Damascus and Palmyra.

During the intertestamental period, the returning Jews had border skirmishes with the Idumeans. Hebron was captured by Judas Maccabeus (1 Maccabee 5:65). John Hyrcanus compelled the Idumeans to become Jews and submit to circumcision. The governor of Idumea, Antipater, who had been made procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, was an Idumean. Antipater assigned his son Herod as governor of Galilee. This paved the way for Herod to become king of Judea, under the title of Herod the Great. With the conquest of Judea by the Romans, first in AD 70, and later in AD 135, Idumea disappears from history. Only in recent years have archaeologists begun to uncover some of the secrets of the Idumeans and of the Nabateans, their conquerors.